Монография (часть 1) Ростов-на-Дону 2001 Федоров А. В



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Abstract


The realization of the theoretically and methodically grounded system of the Media education on the material of the audiovisual arts, promotes not only the forming of the aesthetic acknowledgement and individual creative thinking of the student youth, but also prepares it for the conduct of the circles and optional lessons, special courses on the problems of media screen arts.

The object of course - the theoretical and practical activity of the students, who acquire the aesthetic knowledges with the help of the cinema, television and video, develop their creative and moral potential, the individual thinking, the independence of the analytic judgment, study to teach the pupils on audiovisual basis.

The subject of the course is the artistic and pedagogical opportunities for using the screen arts in the educational process. The goals of course is at first, to define the place and role of the screen arts in the sphere of the artistic interests of the students, the psychological and pedagogical conditions of the development of the student's individuality by the means of the cinema, TV, video. Secondly, the aim is to elaborate the effective system of the formation of the aesthetic consciousness /on the basis of the perception of the audiovisual time-space reality in the cinema this perception unites the experience of the apprehension of the traditional arts/, to develop the individual thinking and creative potential of the students, to prepare the future teachers for the Media education and training of the pupils on the audiovisual material.

The General characteristics.

The realization of the theoretically and methodically grounded system of the Media education on the material of the audiovisual arts, promotes not only the forming of the aesthetic acknowledgement and individual creative thinking of the student youth, but also prepares it for the conduct of the circles and optional lessons, special courses on the problems of media screen arts.

The object of course - the theoretical and practical activity of the students, who acquire the aesthetic knowledges with the help of the cinema, television and video, develop their creative and moral potential, the individual thinking, the independence of the analytic judgment, study to teach the pupils on audiovisual basis.

The subject of the course is the artistic and pedagogical opportunities for using the screen arts in the educational process. The goals of course is at first, to define the place and role of the screen arts in the sphere of the artistic interests of the students, the psychological and pedagogical conditions of the development of the student's individuality by the means of the cinema, TV, video. Secondly, the aim is to elaborate the effective system of the formation of the aesthetic consciousness /on the basis of the perception of the audiovisual time-space reality in the cinema this perception unites the experience of the apprehension of the traditional arts/, to develop the individual thinking and creative potential of the students, to prepare the future teachers for the Media education and training of the pupils on the audiovisual material. It's assumed that the training of students for the Media education of the pupils on the basis of cinema, TV and video may become the effective method of the development of the aesthetic acknowledgement /the perception, taste, the skill of the artistic analysis and so on/, the creative faculties / through the practical mastering of the audiovisual language, the theatrical and situative games and so on/, the individual thinking of the audience, with the condition of the maximum use of the potential opportunities of the cinema, TV, video with the help of the Pedagogical model.

This model includes: the mastering of the creative skill by the students on the basis of cinema, TV and video, the forming of the apprehension of the artistic structure of the screen arts' works / by the method of the emotional and meaningful correlation of the units of the cinema narration/; the ability of their analysis, the acquaintance with the main milestones in the history of the cinema, TV and video, with the modern social and cultural situation; the studying of the methods and forms of the Media education and training of the pupils on the material of the screen arts; the use of the obtained knowledges and skill in the process of pedagogical practical work in the secondary school establishments.

The present model foresees the method of the lessons, based on the problematic, in the form of the game and others. These forms of education develop the individuality of the student, the independence of his thinking, stimulate his creative abilities thanks to the direct involvement into the artistic and creative activity, the perception, interpretation and analysis of the audiovisual structure of the narration, the adoption of the aesthetic knowledges.

The following basic forms of activity are distinguished:

1. The mastering of the principles of the creative skills on the basis of the films, TV programmes /the writing of the small scripts, the work on the «ad posters», the amateur video shooting/.

2. The forming of the aesthetic perception, interpretation and appraisal of the productions of cinema, TV and video, rising to the identification with the author, that is to the comprehension of the complex of the audiovisual artistic images, individual creative mentality.

3. The obtaining of the knowledges about the history of the screen arts about their role and place in the social and cultural life.

4. The study acquirement and practical use of the method and program of the Media education of the pupils on the basis of the screen arts.

The game's method and the problematic method of the leading of the collective films' and telecasts' discussions.

The directions on the aesthetic perception: the collective seeing a film; post communicative stage: the discussion of the film seen by the above-mentioned discussions of the screen art' works in the student audience. In the capacity of the basic criterion of the students' faculty for the artistic analysis of the audiovisual, space-and-time structure of the screen's works the skill of the comprehension of the varied figurative world of the film is distinguished. The skill of the comprehension of the logic of the sight and sound, plastic development of the author's thoughts is also very important in the complex unit of the various means of the organization of the sight and sound.

According to the worked out system, the program of my special course foresees the study of the parts «The Basic Stages of the Screen Art's History» and «The Training of Students for the Media Education of Pupils on the Basis of the Screen arts».

During the realization of the program of the last part, the following stages were foreseen:



    the acquaintance of the future pedagogues with the problems of media-education and training of the pupils by the means of the screen arts in the Russian and foreign pedagogic, with the forms and kinds of the present education;

    the study of the method of the Media education of the pupils on the material of the cinematograph, TV, video in the system of the humanities, optional lessons, cinema-video clubs for the pupils;

    the use of the obtained knowledges and skills during the student pedagogical practical work /the leading of the clubs and optional lessons by the future teachers, the discussion of the control lessons etc./.


In the process of the forming experiment, the future teachers mastered the creative point of view in the work with the pupils, with the help of the games in roles, the tasks of the creative nature, the attitude to the pupils, proceeding from their individuality, differentiated attitude to the pupils, proceeding from their individuality, cultural development. The attention of the audience was drawn to the aesthetic education of the pupils by the screen arts' means: the purposeful selection of the works of art, the definition of the main tasks, organizational and methodical principles, best conditions forms and methods /the persuasion, stimulation, the organization of the problem situations etc./ of the lessons with the pupils. Such lessons must be corresponding to the process of the formation of the pupil's creative individuality, aesthetic perception of the films and TV programmes, including the concrete practical tasks, the use of the technical means control and appraisal of pupils' work.

The tasks include: the writing ones /the working out of the plan-summary of the lesson, conversations, the opening words before the collective seeing, competitions, the choice of the themes and the ground of the plans of the course's and diploma's works on the problems of the pupils' education by the means of the screen arts/, the «theatrically-situation's» /the business-like games «The Lesson», «The Conversation with the pupils» on the audiovisual basis, the theatricalized sketches on the themes of the study of the cinema-video-club for the pupils etc./.

The criterions of the fulfillment of the present studies /as ones of the control lessons during the pedagogical practical work are: the skill of the future teachers to draw up the plans and choose the subjects of the different kinds of works with the pupils theoretically grounded and methodically literately, to lead the studies of the clubs and optional lessons on the audiovisual material.

In the result of the realization of the formative experiment, the standards /levels/ of the criterions of the professional readiness of the aesthetic education of the pupils on the basis of the screen arts rose. Thus I got the evidences of not only the effective work of the worked out system /the resultant aspect/, but the proofs of the necessity of the maximum development of the knowledges and skills, corresponding to the worked out criterions of the professional readiness for the aesthetic education of the pupils by the means of the cinema, TV and video.


THEMATIC PLAN OF THE PROGRAMME OF COLLEGE /UNIVERSITY/ COURSE

"THE TRAINING OF STUDENTS FOR MEDIA EDUCATION OF PUPILS ON THE BASIS

OF THE SCREEN ARTS /CINEMA, TV, VIDEO/".

Part 1. The Development of Students' Aesthetic Perception & Ability for Analysis of the Screen Arts' Works.



N

Title of the theme:

Lectures

(hours) :



Practical (hours):

1

The first test for students

-

2

2

The first students' experiment of the screen arts' review

-

2

3

The problem of aesthetic perception of screen arts

2

10

4

The aesthetic analysis of the screen arts' works

2

10

5

The test for students: the results of first part of Media Education

-

2

6

The students' screen art’s' reviews as the results of the first part of Media education

-

2

Part 2. The Basic Stages of Screen Arts' History and Peculiarities of Modern Sociocultural Situation.



N

Title of the theme:

Lectures

(hours) :



Practical (hours):

1

"The Great Silent" (1895-1930)

10

-

2

The Stage of Sound Cinema (1926-Present

20

-

3

Development of Television (1935-Present)

6

-

4

Development of Video (1970-Present)

4

-

5

The Role of Screen Arts in the Modern Sociocultural Situation

2

-

Part 3. The Training of Students for Media Education of Pupils on the Basis of the Screen Arts.



N

Title of the theme:

Lectures

(hours):



Practical (hours):

1

The Problems of Media Education in the Modern Science

6

6

2

The kinds & Forms of Media Education on the Basis of Screen Arts

4

10

3

The Use of the Screen Arts in the System of the school's subjects

6

10

4

The methods of Media (Screen Arts) Education’s Studies

8

10

5

The methods of Cinema-video-club's studies for the pupils

6

6

6

The Use of the Knowledges and Skills in the Process of Students' Pedagogical Practice

-

20

7

The Final Test of Students

-

2

8

total: 168 hours

76

92

THE PROGRAM OF COURSE "THE TRAINING OF STUDENTS FOR MEDIA EDUCATION OF PUPILS ON THE BASIS OF SCREEN ARTS (CINEMA, TELEVISION , VIDEO"

Part 1. Development of students' Aesthetic Perception and Ability for the Analysis of the Screen Arts' Works.

Theme 1. The first test for students.

Results this test give insight into the artistic preferences of the concrete auditorium in the field of screen arts (the most popular genres, themes, functions, heroes, other motives of perception of the works of cinema, television, video), what is allowed for teacher at the realization of the all complex of training course.

Theme 2. The first students' experience of the screen arts' review.

The students’ reviews let to bring out the initial levels of aesthetic perception and capacity for the artistic analysis of the works of screen arts, characteristic for this auditorium.

Theme 3. The problem of the aesthetic perception of screen arts.

Installation on perception. The process of artistic perception (picturesque generalization, the synthesis of elements audiovisual and space-temporary narrative, the conditions of perception). Levels and types the artistic perception of screen arts («primary identification», «secondary identification», «complex identification»). Ages, social, professional, national and another peculiarities of the perception of the works of screen arts. The phenomenon of the mass-scale success; of video different types and genres. Technical types cinema, television, and video: absence colors (color, or black-and-white image), of sound (silent, sound, etc.), by the peculiarities of the format of image (habitual, cinemascope, etc.), volume of images (ordinary, stereo, etc.).

Documentary screen arts, cinema-TV-equipment, reportage, essay, portrait, interview, the application of archival audiovisual materials and etc.), their purpose, tasks, functions. Scientifically popular cinema and television: the popularization of the scientific ideas by means of screen arts. Instructive and knowledge function of the scientifically popular films and telecasts. Instructional films and telecasts: absence of popularization, calculation on vocational Feature screen arts (films, telecasts, music-videos, their specific, thematically diversities, etc.). Documentary in the feature films and artistic television. Animation screen arts, their role, tasks, functions. Ties and the screen arts. Music videos how the characteristic example of the amalgamation of the several types of screen arts, their peculiarity.

Connection of the cinema genres and artistic television with the genre of literature and theater. Specific of the genre of screen arts (tragedy, drama, melodrama, comedy, detective, thriller, musical, etc.). Conception of mass-culture genre. Synthesis of the genres - the characteristic phenomenon of contemporary screen arts.

The process of the creation of the works of screen arts. Students' receipt of creative abilities on material cinema, television, video, computer games and interactive programs, the seeing and the discussions about the works of screen arts.

The main causes of the popularity of the works of screen arts (folklore bases, mass-culture genre, author's intuition, system «emotional switching», use of the function of compensation, recreation, etc.).

Theme 4. The aesthetic analysis of screen arts' works.

The consideration of the contents of the episodes of the works of screen arts, the detecting of the brightest characteristic regularities of the film or telecast on the whole. Attempt is parsed in the logic of author's thinking: in the development of conflicts, of characters, of ideas, of sound-plastic world, etc. Detection of author's concept and the expression of students' personal position about the Media screen work.

Theme 5. The test for students: The Results of first part of Media Education.

Students’ answer of questionnaires, of identical themes, what were used at the beginning of studies of training course. Received results are compared with results initial tests in controlling students' groups. Thus, graphically manifests effectiveness carried out callings.

Theme 6. The students' screen arts' reviews as the results of the first part of Media education.

Comparison of the initial and the final works of students allowing to infer about that, how was changed their level of artistic perception and capacity for the artistic analysis of the works of screen arts.

Part 2. The basic stages of screen arts' history and the peculiarities of modern sociocultural situation.

Theme 1. «Great Silent» (1895 - 1930).

From photograph to the cinema. Creation the first films. Cinema began centuries: it principal items and genres. American Silent cinema. Impressionism in French movies. Expressionism in German movies. Surrealism. Russian Silent cinema (1915-1918). The creative flow of Russian cinema 1920-1930.

Theme 2. Stage of Sound Cinema (1926- Present)

The first sound movies. Development American and English Mass-culture cinema (comedy, detective, western, thriller, musical, horrors, etc.). The French cinema of the epoch of democracy (30-th years) and German occupation (1940-1944), the first post-war year old «Poetic», «romantic» and «black» cinema. Entertainment French cinema.

Totalitarian tendencies in Russian and German cinema: themes, problems, ideas, and heroes. The mass-culture Russian cinema 30-40-s. Neorealism in Italian movies: problems, tendencies, social roots, and subject area, stylistics. Significance of Neorealism for the development of world art. American cinema 30-60-s. American Star system. Decline of neorealism and «pink neorealism» in Italian movies. Entertainment cinema the epochs of «Italian miracle».

French «new wave»: problems, the type of hero, quest shaped. Entertainment French cinema 50- 60-s).

German cinema west and east zone: thematically and artistic differences.

Spanish cinema epochs Franco. Swedish and Norwegian cinema. «The thaw» in Russian cinema of second half 50-s. «Poetic cinema» and the theory of the «flood of life», «picturesque cinema» and another flow. The Russian «author's» and entertainment cinema 60-s. The Russian reinforcement of antidemocratic tendencies with reference to movies into second half 60-s: causes and consequences.

Cinema of East Europe: «polish school», Czechoslovak cinema 60-s, Yugoslavian and Hungary cinema. Japan cinema. Triumph of American entertainment cinema of 70--90-s years. European cinema 60-90-s. Censorship and the creative complexities of realization of Russian author's ideas in contemporary theme. Russian 70-s - of 80-s years. The change of Russian sociocultural situation (second half 80-s), the abolition of censoring, emergence on screen previously banned films. Opening new thematically, problematical and genres possibilities Russian cinema. The further reinforcement of tendencies computerization American mass-culture cinema. The problems of hiring out and the blunt drop of attendance in the circumstances market, developments cable, and satellite television. The fundamental change of situation in East Europe cinema on the whole (in connection with the ruin of authoritarian political regimes, by the corporation of Germany, by the breakdown of Soviet union, etc.).

Theme 3. The development of Television (1935- Present)

The first tests of creation electronic TV in the mid of 30-s the years of XX century. Basic principles TV. Television canals and standards. Black-and-white and color television. The American artistic television of 40-s years: genres and themes. The first artistic television 50-s. Priority direct television of 50-60-s years. Color television. TV 60- 70-s years devoted to literature, to theater, to music, painting, to architecture, choreography, to circus, photographs, and cinema and to other types arts. Entertainment programs of world television 70- 80-s years. Priority video. Top TV masters 60 - 80-s. Phenomenon of serial. TV-theater and it tradition. The effect of sociocultural situation on the change of character, areas and forms artistic TV. Computer technician and television. FX. Tutorial television. The main tendencies of world television 50- 80-s years.

Contemporary telecasts devoted to art: genres, themes, problems, image top, and the contact with auditorium. Television cinema. Cable and satellite television. The main tendencies of the world television of 90s years.

Theme 4. Development of video (1970- Present).

Video 70-s: the first attempts of creation home video. Contemporary video: VCR, video camera, etc. video-cinema and music videos. Possibilities video and it significance for artistic upbringing by the facilities of screen arts. The outlooks of development video.

Theme 5. The role of screen arts in modern sociocultural situations. Specific and the relationship of screen arts, their connection with other arts in the context of contemporary sociocultural situation. The role of audiovisual culture of screen arts in the living of contemporary man. The peculiarities of contemporary sociocultural situation (the intensive development of the audiovisual facilities of information, computer technology, cinema-video-market, ordinary, cable, satellite television and etc.). Specific communication of the Media contact and role in this process of phenomenon mass-popular cultures. The outlooks of screen arts in the plan of the improving of pedagogical process in schools, Universities.

Chapter 3. The Training of Students for the Media Education of Pupils on the Basis of the Screen Arts.

Theme 1. Problems of Media Education in the Modern Science.

Media and Media Education: the problems of terminology. The contemporary state of the pedagogical cadres of from the point of view preparing for Media education and to artistic upbringing of pupils on the material of screen arts. Role of Media education, of artistic upbringing on material of cinema, television, video in contemporary pedagogical process. The synopsis of theoretical proceedings and examinations devoted to problem of Media education and artistic upbringing by the film and TV. Dignities and blemishes, the choice of the most effective ways.

Theme 2. The kinds & forms of Media Education on the Basis of Screen arts.

Programs by Media Education, the facilities cinema and television. Media Education on the material of screen arts in the context of school disciplines. Lectures. The evenings devoted to screen arts. Expositions and amateur press about the problems cinema, of television, video. The Media education lessons. Cinema-video-clubs. Amateur cinema-video-studios. Reproductive, heuristics, playful, problems lessons of Media education. The development of full-value artistic pupils' perception of screen arts (model, methods, etc.), the criteria of the aesthetic development of the auditorium in the field of screen arts. Scientifically pedagogical activity the most known media teachers. Media Education Programs of UNESCO, programs of European Union.

Theme 3. The use of screen arts in the system of school 's subjects.

The application of screen arts in the process of the teaching of literature, of music, of pictorial art, histories and other disciplines.

Theme 4. The methods of Media (Screen Arts) Education's Studies.

The common model (the levels of artistic development and the perception of the works of screen arts; the development of audiovisual perception and the abilities of the artistic analysis of works cinema, television, video; the formation of creative abilities on the material of screen arts), program and methods the principles of lessons for pupils as to the bases of screen arts. The facilities of Media Education on screen arts (lectures, conversations, of written paper - reviews screenplay, «adaptation», narrative on behalf of the film's hero, telecasts; cadrages, collages, cinema-video-shooting etc.; heuristics, playful study - competitions, etc.; discussions, conference on various themes bound with video; excursions, meetings with men of screen arts. The methodology of the arranging of the sociologic examination of the artistic preferences of pupils in the field screen arts. Theme 5. The methods of cinema-video-club's studies for the pupils. Discussion cinema-video-clubs, it task and functions. The methodology of arranging this clubs (opening address, reviewing of the film, telecasts, collective debate). The possibilities of organization of video club in schools, at the cinema-theaters, the houses of culture, in the establishments of complementary education.

Theme 6. The use of the Knowledge and Skills in the Process of Students' pedagogical practice.

Media Education, artistic upbringing taught on the material of screen arts in the process of the pedagogical practice of students in schools, the establishments of complementary education (the centers of aesthetic upbringing, clubs), boarding-schools, children's houses, summer centers: main methodical principles and shaped works. Practical application received knowledges during arranging current study with pupils.

Theme 7. The Final Test of Students.

This tests sums up to all curriculum, gives insight into that, how deeply are internalized by students received knowledges and abilities, what changes in artistic perception and the development of students' audience.


9.11.The special course “The mass and individual terror in the mirror of the Russian cinema-art (The feature films of the sound period)”
This work was supported by the grant of Open Society Institute, Budapest, Hungary: International Higher Educational Support Program, Course Development Competition (HESP – CDC, 1998).
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