Авторами тезисов и сообщений являются петербургские старшеклассники, занявшие на своих гимназических конференциях первое место, что дало им право выступления на Ежегодных городских гимназических ученических чтениях.
Сборник предназначен для педагогов-предметников, методистов, работников образования, занимающихся исследовательской деятельностью школьников, а также будет полезен старшеклассникам в поиске темы для своей исследовательской выпускной работы и ее дальнейшего развертывания.
М. Михайлова , 2007
ВТОРЫЕ ГИМНАЗИЧЕСКИЕ ЧТЕНИЯ
Вторых гимназических чтений 2005 года
По предметным областям “Физика, астрономия, информатика”
1.Васильев Дмитрий гимназия 159 в номинации “За профессионализм и практическую значимость работы”
2. Влада Елена, гимназия 261 в номинации “За умение отстаивать свою точку зрения”
По предметным областям “Математика, экономика”
1. Филиппова Елена, гимназия 159 в номинации “За понимание законов красоты”
2. Петров Кирилл, гимназия 271 в номинации “За научный подход при решении практических задач”
По предметной области “Химия”
1. Карпенко Ирина, лицей 82 в номинации “За восстановление исторической справедливости”
2. Кучерова Елена, гимназия 271 в номинации “За актуальность и практическую значимость”
По предметной области “Биология”
1. Земсков Иван, гимназия 73
2. Савченко Яна, гимназия 622
3. Овчинников Дмитрий, лицей 82
4. Мущинский Дмитрий, лицей 82 в номинации “За научное содержание и экологическую значимость работы”
5. Румянцев Андрей, гимназия 116 в номинации “За глубокий научный подход”
По предметной области “Иностранные языки”
1. Анкудинова Евгения, гимназия 399 в номинации “За глубокое научное осмысление поэзии Шекспира и свободное владение языком”
2. Гончар Анна, гимназия 116 в номинации “За лучшую исследовательскую работу в рамках организации коммерческого предприятия и свободное владение языком”
По предметным областям “Культурология, психология и краеведение”
1. Гаврилин Роман, гимназия 116 в номинации “Исследование в области региональной культуры России”
2. Титаренко Елизавета, Вторая СПб. гимназия в номинации “Исследование в области культуры Санкт-Петербурга”
3. Коношенко Мария, гимназия 406
4. Ольшевская Варвара, гимназия 405
5. Матвеева Наталья , гимназия 92
По предметным областям “История и право”
1. Громова Дарья гимназия 148 в номинации “За широкое использование источников”
2. Шмелев Павел, гимназия 524 в номинации “За бережное отношение к отечественной истории”
3. Вахова Вероника гимназия 622 в номинации “За исследовательский интерес и уважение к истории малых народов России”
4. Дятлова Алина, Дятлова Наталья, лицей 344 в номинации “За исследовательскую работу по созданию семейного архива как отражения истории государства”
5. Орлова Дарья гимназия 148 в номинации “История семьи в судьбе страны”
6. Кашерининов Игорь, гимназия 192 в номинации “За личностный подход в преломлении исследования”
7. Шкрум Дмитрий гимназия 622 в номинации “За серьезное исследование проблемы”
8. Малышев Алексей гимназия 107 в номинации “За постоянство в выборе темы исследования”
9. Верховцева Серафима гимназия 92 в номинации “Путь в науку”
10. Ляпустин Михаил, Ивановский Алексей гимназия 61 в номинации “За актуальность темы и способа ее решения”
11. Крейнин Владислав, гимназия 148 в номинации “История и судьбы”
12. Ермилов Сергей, гимназия 272 в номинации “Мифы и реальность”
По предметной области “Литература, русский язык”
1. Смагулова Алина, гимназия 74 в номинации “За грамотный филологический анализ и чувство текста”
2. Горбачева Дарья, гимназия 631 в номинации “За интерес к теме”
3. Мишур Элла, гимназия 159
4. Андреева Янина, гимназия 73
5. Гарина Мария, гимназия 498 в номинации “За глубину исследования языка писателя”
6. Добромыслова Алена, гимназия 405 в номинации “Превращение науки в искусство”
7. Темкина Валерия, гимназия 144
8. Зубова Анна, гимназия 148
9. Самуйлова Елена, гимназия 248 в номинации “За филологическую подготовленность”
10. Поджарова Валерия, гимназия 406 в номинации “За точность литературоведческого мышления”
11. Хлопонина Вера, гимназия 405 в номинации “Оригинальная интерпретация”
12. Егорейченко Наталья, гимназия 73 в номинации “Пушкинский текст”
13. Иванова Кира, гимназия 405
14. Морозова Елена, гимназия 528
Секция иностранных языков
Петрова Нина Александровна
, к. фил.наук, доцент, Невский институт языка и культуры
Прманова Галина Тулигеновна, учитель английского языка, гимназия 144
Себелева Светлана Александровна, методист по английскому языку, учитель гимназии №622
Шайдук Прасковья Александровна, учитель французского языка гимназии № 144
Some special features of sonnets about “the Dark Lady” by William Shakespeare.
(на материале фильма “White Oleander”)
Анкудинова Евгения, ученица 11 “А” класса гимназии №399
Why is the Shakespeare’s theme essential (the theme of present day). Private motives of choosing the theme. The analysis of the literature on problems of my research:
Much time has passed since Shakespeare’s period of life but we address to the poetry by Shakespeare more and more often. Shakespeare’s sonnet hasn’t lost its attractiveness for 4 centuries. Why is it so? What is the most attractive side of Shakespeare’s poetry? It wasn’t difficult to answer this question.
In our time, the time of the technical progress, when electronics wins the victory in different sciences, the man forgets to think about spiritual life which is the part of human being. The poetical works by Shakespeare made people think, shake the human hearts, understand the human nature though they were written many years ago.
The person who wishes to be a highly developed personality, addresses to Shakespeare’s sonnets again and again…The poetry by Shakespeare is becoming very popular now. The sonnets by Shakespeare are translated into many languages of the world and the number of translators are growing constantly. Even in our gymnasium Ή399 we can find a lot of wonderful translations of the sonnets by Shakespeare. We can even find some special principles of translation of his sonnets which are defined by some poets. We know, the wonderful music to the verses was written and A.Pugachova, the Russian star-singer, performs Shakespeare’s sonnets in musical form…
As for me, I have chosen this theme because I’m fond of love poetry. The sonnets about “the Dark Lady” by Shakespeare is a splendid example of such verse. Taking part in the reciters’ competitions I saw the young people pay attention to the poetry about love. And once I opened the book of sonnets by Shakespeare and understood that I want to read them again and again. And now it’s very interesting for me to understand what kind of person was “the Dark Lady”, so beautiful, so different and contradictive. That is why I made my mind to write an essay…
To write this work I used some books by foreign and Russian authors, and Internet sites. I worked with the books written in English. One of them, “An Outline of English Literature” by E. Gomberga was an authentic book written in British English. Also I used the article by Russian author S. Belza. So, I had to read and understand foreign literature and translate from Russian into English a lot-it was very useful for my English. Another useful thing was that foreign and Russian authors had different opinions on the theme of the sonnets and I had to analyze and compare their points of view to make the right conclusion. I wrote myself the third chapter of the work, that is why I had not only to write, but even to think in English. The atmosphere of the sonnets made me do it.
The aims and the tasks of my research:
I should like to follow how the sonnets about “the Dark Lady” are connected, what creative methods and means Shakespeare used in them. I’ll try to understand why the sonnets by Shakespeare are so expressive, touching and unrepeatable.
Widespread plan, leading to the work:
From classical sonnet to Shakespeare’s poetry:
The sonnet as a form of lyric poetry appeared in Italy in the 13th
century. The classical sonnet had 14 lines with different rhymes. It consisted of 2 quatrains (a verse of four lines, usually rhyming abab
; French-quatrain) and 2 terzinas (Italian terzina-three lined poetical verse). The genre of sonnet took place in the poetry during the period of Renaissance and in England this kind of verse was called “Shakespeare’s sonnet”. First of all, Shakespeare’s sonnet has some special features in the genre: it consists of 3 quatrains and a final two lined poem, in which there is a final idea. The metre of his sonnet is steady and as a rule it’s iambs.
The originality of Shakespeare’s sonnets is composed of combining the theme of love with another one and at the end of every sonnet we see the synthesis of both themes. The contents of the poem should be put into 14 lines.
The period of Renaissance and Shakespeare’s ideal of a woman:
Shakespeare’s age is a bright page of history. It is the period of Renaissance which was marked by upsurge in social and cultural life. The poet F. Bacon declared the Renaissance was “the beginning of new science”, which “destroyed the medieval canons”. At that period of time not only poets but gentlemen who wanted to win victories over women’s hearts had to compose sonnets. A lot of sonnets appeared at that period of time. The sweetheart was usually blond and fair, with a peaches-and-cream complexion-and disdainful. Not by chance Philip Sidney, the author of the collection of sonnets, wrote in his work “The Defense of Poetry” that “it was impossible to believe in love in sonnets of many poets”, but Shakespeare made the readers believe in it, feel it. Why?
The character of “the Dark Lady” isn’t like immaterial shades of the poetic women’s characters of the Elizabeth epoch. The poet opposes the features of alive but not ideal woman to becoming tedious by being seen too often stamps (eyes-stars, lips-corals).
Also Shakespeare’s sonnets is a sort of encyclopedia of feelings. In his sonnets about “the Dark Lady” we find really different shadows of human feelings, connected with love: delight or awe, thank or blame, despair.
My next statement is that one of the main features of Shakespeare’s sonnets about “the Dark Lady” is their majesty:
The time of the first publishing:
Even now the critics and authors of books about the poet couldn’t find out when the sonnets had been written. The majority of critics are sure that the sonnets had been written in 1590th
(between 1592-1598). For the first time “sweet sonnets” were mentioned in “Palladis Tamia” by Mires in 1598 in famous extract devoted to Shakespeare: we could read that his “close friends” were discussing Shakespeare’s poetry about love. Now we suppose that Shakespeare’s sonnets about “the Dark Lady” were written during the first period of his activity. His first period is marked by youthful optimism, exuberance of imagination and extravagance of language. Though the majority of sonnets are full of painful mood and suffering, full of complaining and excusing, optimistic gaiety of a genius helps Shakespeare to overcome the hardships of life and fulfil the duty of the Poet.
The mystery of “the Dark Lady”:
Other mystery of Shakespeare’s sonnets is connected with that woman whom the sonnets had been devoted to. The famous English dramatist Bernard Show wrote the comedy “The Dark Lady of the sonnets” in which he showed the beloved in Shakespeare’s poetry was fraulein of the queen Elizabeth-Mary Fitton
. I stick to this opinion.
In the book by Thorpe “Sonnets by Shakespeare” there is a picture and the colors let us see that she was really dark. The poet stresses that “the Dark Lady” is subjected by the beauty of her beaming eyes, black as the raven’s wing.
There is another proof that the queen’s fraulein could be “the Dark Lady” of the sonnets: the contemporaries found the likeness of the name “Fitton” with the “fit one” (the word’s combination, which was used in one of the sonnets), that seemed to them very interesting.
The coincidences don’t finish. Analyzing the text of the drama “Love’s Labour’s Lost” the critics supposed that the beautiful brunette Rosalind was a prototype of the real woman, whose character was created during the transforming of the play, when the comedy should have been staged for Her Majesty. So, we can come to the conclusion that the end of the first act had been devoted not only for the spectators but to her…to Mary Fitton.
“The Dark Lady”:
The author understood “beauty” specially, not as everybody. According to Shakespeare’s opinion the beauty is human being with all his positive and defective sides. Shakespeare is glorifying really simple, but pretty character of his beloved woman (“My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun, Coral is far more red, than her lips red…”) In the sonnets about the earth beauty, the poet used a great number of comparisons (“Therefore my mistress’ eyes are raven black…”), unrepeatable, estimating epithets (“black heir”, “breasts are dun”, “black wires”). They help the readers to understand the beauty as the poet realised, to create the character of the dear, not simply to see but “to feel” the colour of her hair, to sink in her black, as coal, eyes
The beauty and its semantics:
The beauty of “the Dark Lady” is a contrast of the black side of her soul(131,132):
Shakespeare develops the theme of beauty. He stresses that the beauty of the appearance is not the beauty of the soul. The fairness of “the Dark Lady” is a contrast of the black side of her soul. Let’s see playing of the word “black”: from the first side “black” has the meaning of the standard gauge of beauty: From the other side the poet shows the “black saves in thy deeds”. How simple and easy he shows this collision, using the antithesis of the same word. The blackness of the soul, according to my opinion, won victory in this struggle. Let’s pay attention to the rhyme “black-lack”: even here the author comes to the most important conclusion that the blackness of soul is the most important defect. That is why we can say the final inference is in the final verse of the sonnet 131 (“In nothing art thou black save in thy deeds, And thence this slander as I think proceeds.”)
The lyric character, the Dark Lady and “lovely boy” from the first cycle of the verses:
In the sonnets about “the Dark Lady” by Shakespeare the ever and exhaustless theme of love is closely connected with the theme of friendship. What are the distinguishing features of these sonnets?
Firstly, the rival of the lyric character or, it’s better to say, the poet’s neighbour in “steel bosom’s heart” is neither rascal-separator, nor the brave knight, but the poet’s friend, “lovely boy” from the first cycle of the verses, the light haired boy whom the author has not only the friendly feeling, but the father’s feeling.
Secondly, there is no cruel fighting between the lyric character and the young man. The poet not only makes up with necessity of sharing his love with his friend but, first of all, he cares that the former friendly relations wouldn’t become hostile.
Thirdly, there is a line of problems, which the author is solving in the sonnets about two his close people
There is a sort of duelling between the lyric character and the “brown” beautiful woman in sonnets 133,134. They are struggling for the destiny of the poet’s friend. Describing the insatiable Lady the author uses the metaphoric epithet in “steel bosom’s heart”. I think, he shows the poet's heart cut with “that wounds can’t oppose the steel heart
of “the Dark Lady”. As a result:
Him have I lost, thou hast both him and me,
He pays the whole, and yet am I not free.
So, we persuade ourselves in the strength of her charming and at the same time in her inaccessibleness, in her cruelty, in her insistence and selfloving.
Tender and soft feeling penetrates this sonnet. The author uses the warm and affable comparison of the Lady with mother. Mother is the first word which baby speaks. Mother will never leave her child.
Thus, these verses are so contradictory as the character of “the dark Lady”: tender sonnets-advice interlace with the sonnets-malediction, despair, pain and sadness.
Others groups of sonnets:
In these verses the author gives a fair warning to his sweetheart. Having the God’s gift of Love, the poet preaches the God’s commands: “The blackness of soul is the sin. Don’t care your body!”. There is the problem: will she obey lyric character or not? I think the wish of the woman is stronger than the poets advice and she is about to make her choice in favor of the pleasures of the flesh.
Reading this sonnets we came to the conclusion that the author is destined to love suffering up to the end of his life. There is a parallel with the “Prorok” by M. Lermontov. It is very difficult for people who are gifted by the arm of God live among men: they are understood by nobody. So, beautiful, but cruel Fitton doesn’t understand all the charms of this wide feeling and continues to “glance thine eyes aside”, provoking hard torments in the poet's soul.
The main principles of translation Shakespare's poetry:
imnidiacy of intonation
dealing with the readers who hve the original poetry
giving up the idea of using archaisms
addressing to a woman
Thus, I believe, I have got the aim of my report. I have proved that the sonnets by William Shakespeare have their own special features. Also I have shown the main features of “the Dark Lady’s” character (the contradiction of her image is evident), followed the poet’s feelings which belie emotional experience of the poets during the period of Renaissance, represented the main problems of the sonnets and their unexpected solutions.
V Perspectives of the work:
I think in future I'll work on this theme. I should like to enter the Pedagogical University named after Gercen and begin my researching new sides of Shakespeare's poetry (using the modern principles of translation Shakespeare's verses).
New Zealand and the New Russia
(Future development together).
Gomberga E. An Outline of English Literature for Philologists;-Riga: “Zvaigzne”,1937
Брандерс Г. Шекспир. Жизнь и произведения (Серия: Гений в искусстве) -М., “Алгоритм”,1997
Морозов М. Шекспир. (Серия “ЗЖЛ”), 2-ое издание-ЦК ВЛКСМ., “Молодая Гвардия”,1956
В. Шекспир Сонеты/Пер. с англ. С. Маршака; Послесловие С. Бэлзы;-М., “Детская литература”,1988
Anna Gonchar 10b Gymnasium 116
In our today life the entire world tends to be united. And it’s not a secret that no country in modern world community can exist without some relations with other countries. States become partners in different areas: politics, economics, science etc.
Undoubtedly, the New Russia today has much more international relations than Soviet Union. Its main partners in different areas are countries of CIS, Germany and the United States. New Zealand’s external economic links and foreign policy are mainly connected with Great Britain, Australia, the United States, China and Japan. Russia cannot be called one of the principal partners of New Zealand now. But I am sure that there are many areas of future joint development of these countries.
If we are talking about future development of New Zealand and Russia together one of the first things to do is to find something out about each other. In other words, in the beginning of the joint activities we should create a vivid picture of our counties for those who know bare facts about it. As a result the mutual interest between New Zealand and Russia will be aroused. First of all joint educational programs of any type will help to learn about each other much that is new. This sort of activities is effective. But not only educational projects can make up a dialogue between Russia and New Zealand. Cultural exchange is also very important for learning more about each other. For example it would be very interesting to organize some exhibitions of maori traditional culture in Russia and to make some tours of Russian theatres along New Zealand. So, I think that before developing some serious economical and political links Russia and New Zealand should draw together and try to understand each other. It is a very important first step to joint future.
National cuisine without any doubts concerns to culture. It is very different and special in most of countries. New Zealand cuisine is characterized by its freshness and diversity; it is not very well-known all over the world. Russian cuisine is a bit more popular in the world, mainly because lots of Russian emigrants live in different countries. But it is also not really widely spread.
My project is creating the network of Russian restaurants in New Zealand and New Zealand’s restaurants all over the Russia. The conception of my project is making a network of healthy food restaurants with fast service, which will be not “the fast-food”, but the alternative to modern fast-food restaurants with junk food as “McDonald’s” or “KFC”. The restaurants of this network will provide a wide choice of essential and fast services for democratic prices connected not only with meals. These restaurants will become a sort of cultural centers of the faraway country, remaining being restaurants though. Within limits of this program many other joint projects can be brought to life. This project can seem to be an ideal one which is far from reality and will not have a chance to be brought to fruition. But there are several facts, which prove that it will be successful and popular if made properly.
First of all, before starting this project and while realizing it some measures for arousing an interest in cultures of New Zealand and Russian should be made. If the dialogue of cultures is adjusted, there will always be some people interested in this project. If we add the results of advertising we’ll have a big enough amount of customers. Furthermore, many people who care about their health will be very interested in this project. Russian food is not yet wide spread. That’s why opening Russian restaurants in New Zealand will be something new. Just the same things can be said about Russia, were New Zealand’s cuisine is not represented. Also a number of extra services and democratic prices will attract customers. Exotic dishes will attract some people. If we sum it all up, the project is going to be rather successful. To start the project money is needed. I think that some Russian and New Zealand’s businessmen should be drawn in this project.
The first restaurants of the network should be situated in centers of some big cities, for instance, Saint-Petersburg and Auckland. The serving stuff should have some experience and should speak two languages: Russian and English. This is important for realizing the conception of the project, the idea of cultural centers. Much attention should be paid on the interior of restaurants. Inside the restaurants everything should remind of the country, which is represented by this restaurant. Music is also very important for creating the right atmosphere. It is best to choose some instrumental music, which would play on background without irritating the guests. Inventing the title is extremely important. It makes a person want either to enter the restaurant of just to pass by. The titles I offer are “Kiwi” and “Russian kasha”. Advertisements should be created by specialists and placed on TV and radio, in newspapers and magazines, in some crowded places. They shouldn’t be flashy but psychologically well thought-out and also stylish.
Of course any restaurant begins with the menu. First of all I think that the menu should have several parts to satisfy any client. The first part is “The main menu”, where you can choose the national dishes from Russia in New Zealand and vice versa. This part should be the biggest because the variety of traditional dishes is laid into the basis of the restaurants’ conception. In the menu there should be the part called “All over the world” where a person can find some traditional dishes of different countries. Nowadays more and more people become vegetarians. To make them feel comfortable in the restaurant I offer to make one more part in the menu: “Vegetarian food”.
Russia is mainly a northern country with long-lasting cold winter. The food should give us much energy and warmth to survive during the wintertime. So, the essential components of Russian cuisine are those, which provide more carbohydrates and fat rather than proteins. So Russian food should be slightly adapted for New Zealand. For example, summer dishes would be ideal for New Zealand.
New Zealand’s cuisine has been described as Pacific Rim, drawing inspiration from Europe, Asia, Polynesia and its indigenous people, the Maori. For dishes that have a distinctly New Zealand style, there’s lamb, pork and cervena (venison), salmon, crayfish (lobster), Bluff oysters, paua (abalone), mussels, scallops, pipis and tuatua (both are types of New Zealand shellfish); kumara (sweet potato); kiwifruit, tamarillo and feijoa; and pavlova, the national dessert. Perhaps even better known than New Zealand lamb, mussels and other foods are the country’s wines.
Now I’d love to pay attention on some features of restaurants “Kiwi” and “Russian kasha” which make them being not only restaurants but also a kind of cultural centers. That is very important because there is a huge amount of places for dining out and there should be something special about the new restaurants network to attract customers of different social groups. Also these restaurants should become a point of contiguity between Russia and New Zealand, which are so far away from each other.
First of all I offer to make an Internet center and a Wi-Fi zone inside the restaurants. Children menu and special activities would help people who have kids. Some people would like to have their meal at home; the delivery service will be very comfortable for many of them. Some seasonal actions can also be organized. They would be both extra services and advertisements. There should definitely be a system of sales and special offers for permanent clients in the restaurants as well. Maybe students will also have some special sales. These offers will prove that everyone can come to these restaurants and find something suitable. One more useful service, which would suit “Kiwi” and “Russian kasha” restaurants, is providing the conference hall. Its presence will let carrying some joint New Zealand – Russia conferences and business meetings out. When it’s not occupied it can be used for making some exhibitions of New Zealand’s and Russian artists. Continuing the theme of artistic functions of the restaurants I can’t miss the idea of making a small scene inside the cafe. It will give a chance to invite some musicians or singers to perform there on some evenings. Besides that I think it would be very good if there was a branch of some tourist company inside the restaurants. It should specialize on trips to New Zealand and Russia. But the project has the conception of health at the bottom. We can’t infringe interests of people who smoke but we can make the smoking halls smaller. The restaurants “Kiwi” and “Russian kasha” are against smoking.
There is one more area for future economical links between Russia and New Zealand. It is connected with the main idea my works, but grows into some separate project.
One of the drinks listed in the menu of “Russian kasha” restaurants is kefir. It is not really Russian national drink but it is spread in Russia like nowhere else in the world. In Russia it is sold as a simple product in all the shops, not only in health stores. Kefir is extremely useful. It is sometimes compared with yogurt, but is much more healthy. I think that Russia can share its experience and technologies in producing kefir with New Zealand and help to organise the production of it. New Zealand is one of the world’s leaders in diary produce, so why can’t it make its production more various? I think that this joint project is very perspective. Healthy products are needed in our today life and New Zealand could export kefir all over the world as it exports butter now.
One more idea, which is not really connected with the main project but is definitely worth mentioning, is joint development in the sphere of science – biology and ecology. These can be the points where Russia and New Zealand can cooperate. Russian scientists can make expeditions to New Zealand to carry out researches on the evolution. Russian and New Zealand’s scientists together can work out some new ways of saving the unique nature of New Zealand. Such a joint project will give mutual benefits: exclusive scientific facts for Russia and new methods of environment protection for New Zealand. Some money for such a useful project can be taken from the profit of restaurant networks.
Though New Zealand and Russia are so far away from each other they can develop together in different areas. In my opinion it is very important to pay attention not only on bare economics but on culture as well. That’s why the essence of my idea of joint development is creating a network of restaurants. These restaurants in New Zealand should represent Russian cuisine and in Russia – New Zealand’s cuisine. Cuisine is the part of the culture, so these restaurants will become cultural centers, which will draw so faraway countries together and help learn something new about each other. The final aim consists not only of economical benefits but also of adjusting the intercultural communication. Using this project as the basis many other projects can be brought to life such as joint protection of environment and learning wildlife or spreading healthy food by producing kefir. I am sure that there are many other opportunities to cooperate, which I didn’t mention. But if my project is brought to fruition all the following ones will be able to be realized in much more easy way. I believe that Russia and New Zealand have many chances to become partners in future.